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  • The adrenal glands are responsible for hormone production. Overproduction of these hormones typically manifests as Cushing’s disease (hyperadrenocorticism). Typically, these tumors are benign in nature and can be treated medically, though malignant tumors (e.g., carcinomas/adenocarcinomas) are possible. In these cases, surgical excision is generally required. The prognosis for patients with adrenal tumors is generally good if surgical removal is complete.

  • The adrenal medulla is responsible for producing hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine. Dysregulated replication of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla lead to development of a pheochromocytoma. These tumors produce excess hormone that leads to episodes of hypertension and tachycardia. Early detection via abdominal ultrasound is imperative for surgical success. CT scan prior to surgery is recommended as these tumors have the potential for vascular invasion leading to post-operative complications. Staging is recommended given that approximately 40% of patients will have evidence of spread at time of diagnosis.

  • Traditionally, the terms food allergy and food intolerance have been used to describe any and all adverse food reactions in cats. The term food allergy or sensitivity is really most accurately applied when the immune system is involved in creating the signs and symptoms that result. Food intolerance is a far more accurate term to describe adverse food reactions in cats that cover a large category of reactions that do not involve the immune system and are generally digestive issues.

  • Traditionally, the terms food allergy and food intolerance have been used to describe any and all adverse food reactions in dogs. A far more accurate term to describe adverse food reactions in dogs is food intolerance.

  • The determination and wiry coat hark back to terrier breeds, with a sprinkle of flat-nosed breeds, giving them their distinct expression. The Affenpinscher originally called the Miniature Pinscher his litter-brother, with both often born in the same litter. These were often scrappy little farm dogs, helping to keep the farmsteads free of rodents.

  • The Afghan Hound has glamorous good looks that belie his grit and stamina. This ancient breed runs swiftly, is relatively independent and gives affection only to those who have earned it.

  • Afoxolaner is used to treat and control flea and tick infestations in dogs. Sometimes afoxolaner is used for the treatment of sarcoptic mange or demodectic mange. The tablet should always be given as directed by your veterinarian. The majority of dogs have very few side effects from afoxolaner, provided it is given according to label recommendations and at the prescribed interval. If you suspect an overdose or negative reaction to the medication, call your veterinary office immediately.

  • Aggression may be defined as any threat or harmful behavior directed toward another individual or group. Aggression in dogs commonly includes body language or threat displays such as a hard stare, growling, barking, snarling, lunging, snapping, and/or biting. There are many different categories or types of canine aggression including territorial, possessive, maternal/protective, pain-related, predatory, frustration, social conflict-related, sexual, disease-related, and fear- or anxiety-related aggression. The most common presentation of aggression is fear or anxiety motivated. The treatment of aggression will depend on the cause of aggression. Aggression should first be discussed with your veterinarian regarding the most appropriate treatment.

  • Territorial or protective aggression may be exhibited toward people or other animals that approach the pet's property. Generally, people and other animals that are unusual, less familiar to the dog, or most unlike the members of the household are the most likely targets of territorial aggression.

  • An agility trial is a competitive canine sporting event where dogs of various breeds navigate obstacles and are judged on speed and accuracy. Agility training can be a fun activity with many benefits for you and your dog.